Constitutional Law I

Section 1

Howard University School of Law

Prof. Steven D. Jamar
Houston Hall 402
202-806-8017
stevenjamar@gmail.com

Syllabus

Spring 2019

HU Course No. 600-612

http://sdjlaw.org/ConLaw1/index.htm

last update 18 April 2017

Please note that although the syllabus shows what is planned, the course is very unlikely to stay exactly on schedule. This syllabus is subject to change to address current constitutional law developments and to meet the students' needs as perceived by the professor during the semester.

Where:

When: M T Th

Howard University Statement of ADA Procedures

Howard University is committed to providing an educational environment that is accessible to all students.  In accordance with this policy, students in need of accommodations due to a disability should contact Dean Reginald McGahee (rmcgahee@law.howard.edu) or the Office of the Dean for Special Student Services ((202)283-2420) for verification and determination of reasonable accommodations as soon as possible after admission to the University, or at the beginning of each semester.

Table of Contents

Course Overview

This course explores the power relationships enshrined in the United States Constitution. In this course you will examine the basic structures of the U.S. constitutional system, aspects of federalism including the balance of power between the federal government and the states, the historical development of the Supreme Court as an institution, the philosophical justifications for the exercise of judicial review and judicial authority of judges in a democratic society, and the various methods of legal reasoning that are brought to bear in interpreting the Constitution. Among the specific topics to be examined are judicial power including judicial review, jurisdiction, and the 11th Amendment; congressional power including the commerce power, spending power, Taxing power, and congressional power under the Reconstruction Amendments; executive branch including executive privilege and executive power over international relations and other matters; and the separation of power among the branches of government.   

Course Materials

Required

The Constitution

Steven D. Jamar, Constitutional Law: Power, Liberty, Equality (Aspen/Wolters Kluwer 2017) ISBN 9781454870326. Supplemental materials to be provided from Prof. Jamar from time to time (online).

Recommended Books

Additional Perspectives

Brian Landsberg and Leslie Jacobs, Global Issues in Constitutional Law (Thompson West 2007)

Sanford Levinson, Our Undemocratic Constitution:  Where the Constitution Goes Wrong (And How We the People Can Correct It) (Oxford University Press 2006) (paperback edition 2007)

Study Aids

Allan Ides & Chistopher N. May, Constitutional Law: National Power and Federalism – Examples and Explanations (7th ed. Aspen/Wolters Kluwer 2015)

Past exams (downloadable from the CL1 course homepage)

Professor Contact Information

Office:

402 Houston Hall

Phone:

202-806-8017

Email:

stevenjamar@gmail.com (I will typically respond to email within 24 hours.)

Office Hours:

The times listed below may change. I will post up-to-date office hours online at http://sdjlaw.org/index

Mon


Tues


Thur




Occasionally I will not be able to keep these office hours because of other commitments.

If you need to see me at another time, please contact me so we can make an appointment.

These hours will be expanded in the latter part of the semester as student demand increases.

Grade Components

Final Examination

100 pts.

 

 

Course Requirements

Preparation

Read the assigned material before class each day. Be prepared to orally brief the cases and discuss the problems presented by the readings.

Attendance

The law school attendance policy will be enforced. If you miss 25% or more of the scheduled class sessions, starting from the first day of scheduled classes, you will receive an "F" for the course unless you formally withdraw from the course before the last day to drop a course as set by the law school academic calendar. Under the law school policy, attendance means being present at the start of class and throughout the class period. Tardy students and students who leave class early or who leave and come back will be counted as absent.

SCHEDULE

Please note that this schedule identifies the topics to be considered in the order in which they will be considered and identifies the readings for the topics. At the end of each class, the readings for the next class will be assigned.

I.  Foundational Principles and Cases

Constitution Articles 1, 2, 3 & Amends. 1, 5, 10, 11, 14

Part I Foundations

Jamar ch. 1 Studying Constitutional Law (2017) pp. 1-13

Role of the Judiciary in Constitutional Interpretation, Jamar ch. 2 Foundational Principles and Cases (2017) pp. 13-48

Marbury v. Madison (1803) pp. 19-31
Martin v. Hunter's Lessee (
1816) pp. 32-35
Worcester v. Georgia
(1832) (Trail of Tears case) pp. 37-43
Ex parte McCardle
(1868) pp. 46-47

Approaches to Constitutional Interpretation  Jamar ch. 2 Foundational Principles and Cases (2017) pp. 54-80

Calder et Wife v. Bull et Wife (1798)    pp. 55-61
McCulloch v. Maryland
(1819) pp. 63-79

Federalism: Federal Power, State Power, and the Balance Between Them, Jamar ch. 2 Foundational Principles and Cases (2017) pp. 80-129

Chisholm 
v. 
Georgia (1793) pp. 83-94
Dartmouth College v. Woodard (1819) pp. 96-103
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) pp. 109-123
Cooley v. Board of Wardens of the Port of Philadelphia (1851) pp. 124-127

Race and the Constitution  Jamar, ch. 2 Foundational Principles and Cases (2017) pp. 129-142;145-152; 178-180; 193

II. Power
§I Federal Power
§1.A Judicial Power

Judicial Function and Power  Jamar, ch. 3 Judicial Power (2017) pp. 1-87

Constitutional grant of judicial power, Jamar, ch. 3 Judicial Power (2017) pp. 1-6
Congressional power with respect to the judiciary, Jamar, ch. 3 Judicial Power (2017) pp. 6-10

Justiciability, Jamar, Judicial Power (2017) pp. 9-10
Justiciability -- Case or Controversy, Jamar, ch. 3 Judicial Power (2017) pp. 10-11
Justiciability -- Advisory opinions, Jamar, ch. 3 Judicial Power (2017) pp. 11-16

Justiciability -- Standing, Jamar, ch. 3 Judicial Power (2017) pp. 16-

Lujan (1992) pp. 19-27 (standing basics and case or controversy aspects of standing)
Congressional Power over Standing pp. 28-29
Windsor (2013) pp. 29-35 (prudential aspects of standing)
Allen v. Wright (1984)  pp. 36-44 (substantive effects of standing)

Standing -- Special cases  pp. 44-47
Standing -- 3rd party standing pp. 47-50

Justiciability -- Ripeness, Jamar, ch. 3 Judicial Power (2017) pp. 53-55

Justiciability -- Mootness, Jamar, ch. 3 Judicial Power (2017) pp. 56-57

Justiciability -- Political Question  Jamar, ch. 3 Judicial Power (2017) pp. 58-74
Baker v. Carr (1962) pp. 59-71

§1.B Legislative Power

Introduction to Congressional Power, Jamar Ch. 4  (2017)

Commerce Clause  Jamar ch.  5

Introduction to Congressional power, Jamar Ch. 5 Commerce Clause (2017) pp. 1-4
Review Gibbons v. Ogden (1824), Jamar Ch. 2 Foundational Principles and Cases (2017) pp. 109-123

National Federation v. Sebelius (2012), Jamar Ch. 5 Commerce Clause (2017) pp. 4-46 ( (we will not cover all of Sebelius in one day, but I strongly recommend you work through it all because reading the concurrence and dissent should help you understand the majority opinion)

Narrow construction of "commerce," Jamar Ch. 5 Commerce Clause (2017) pp. 46-48

Post-1937 Interpretation of the Interstate Commerce Clause, Jamar Ch. 5 Commerce Clause pp. 48-

Wickard v. Filburn (1942)   pp.  49-55

Post-Wickard Applications of Commerce Clause Power   Jamar Ch. 5 Commerce Clause (2017) pp. 55-68

Heart of Atlanta v. United States (1964)    pp. 56-64

The Court Shifts Again:  Federalism-based Limitations on Federal Power over Interstate Commerce   
Jamar Ch. 5 Commerce Clause (2017) pp. 68-93

United States v. Lopez (1995) pp. 70-81
Gonzales v. Raich (
2005) pp. 84-90

Power over States under the Federal Commerce Clause Power,  Jamar Ch. 5 Commerce Clause (2017) pp. 95-99

Comparative Perspective on Governmental Power, Jamar Ch. 5 Commerce Clause (2017) pp. 99-101

Taxing Power  Jamar  ch. 6 Taxing and Spending Powers  pp. 1-19

Nat'l Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, 567 U.S. ___ (2012) Jamar ch. 6 Taxing and Spending pp. 7-19

Spending Power Jamar ch. 6 Taxing and Spending Powers  pp. 19-35

Nat'l Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius (2012) Jamar ch. 6 Taxing and Spending pp. 21-34

Severability Jamar ch. 6 Taxing and Spending pp. 34-37

National Federation v. Sebelius (2012) (majority) pp. 28-29; (4 justice dissent) pp. 31-32

Necessary and Proper Power and Other Powers Jamar ch. 7 Necessary and Proper and Other Powers pp. 1-21

Necessary and Proper  Jamar ch. 7 Necessary and Proper and Other Powers pp. 1-13

Review: McCulloch v. Maryland (1819), Jamar ch. 2 Foundational Principles and Cases pp. 63-79
United States v. Comstock (2010)), Jamar ch. 7 Necessary and Proper pp. 4-12
Review:  National Federation v. Sebelius (2012) Jamar Ch. 5 Commerce Clause (Roberts' opinion) pp.14, 19-21; Ginsburg dissent in National Federation (2012) Jamar Ch. 5 Commerce Clause pp. 36-39

Bankruptcy    Jamar ch. 7 Necessary and Proper and Other Powers pp. 13-14

Intellectual Property Power    Jamar ch. 7 Necessary and Proper and Other Powers pp. 14-16

Immigration and Naturalization    Jamar ch. 7 Necessary and Proper and Other Powers pp. 16-17

Congressional Power to Implement a Treaty Domestically    Jamar ch. 7 Necessary and Proper and Other Powers pp. 18-21
Missouri v. Holland (1920)  (in notes) Jamar ch. 7 Necessary and Proper and Other Powers pp. 19-20

Congressional Power under the Reconstruction Amendments Jamar Ch. 8 Reconstruction Amendments pp. 1-65

Race and the Constitution, Jamar Ch. 2 Foundational Principles and Cases (2016) pp. 129-193

Read:  Prigg v. Pennsylvania (1842)
Read:  Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857)
Read:  Corfield v. Coryell, 6 Fed. Cas. 546 (C.C.E.D. Pa. 1823)
Study:  The Slaughter-House Cases (1873)
Study:  United States v. Cruikshank (1876)
Study:  The Civil Rights Cases (1883)
Study:  Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)

Slavery, the Civil War, Reconstruction, and the Constitution  Jamar ch. 8 Congressional Power: The Reconstruction Amendments pp. 1-2
Congressional Power under the 14th Amendment   Jamar ch. 8  pp. 12-32

City of Boerne v. Flores (1997)   pp. 8-18

Nevada Department of Human Resources v. Hibbs (2003)   pp. 25-30

Congressional Power under the 15th Amendment  Jamar ch. 8 pp. 32-46

Shelby County v. Holder (2013)  pp. 34-44

Congressional Power under the 13th Amendment  Jamar ch. 8 pp. 46-60

Jones v. Alfred H. Mayer Co.(1968)   pp. 51-58

Summing up Congressional Power under the Reconstruction Amendments Amendment  Jamar ch. 8 pp. 61-62

Executive Power Jamar  ch. 9 Executive Power pp. 1-108

Overview of Executive Power Jamar ch. 9 Executive Power pp. 1-5

President as Commander in Chief and the Use of Force   Jamar ch. 9 Executive Power pp. 5-42
Introduction to The Prize Cases (1863)    Jamar ch. 9 Executive Power pp. 9
                The Prize Cases (1863)    Jamar ch. 9 Executive Power pp. 11-15
After The Prize Cases (1863)    Jamar ch. 9 Executive Power p. 15
War Powers Applied Domestically    Jamar ch. 9 Executive Power p. 15
                Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer (1952)    Jamar ch. 9 Executive Power pp. 18-32

        The Power to Declare War    Jamar ch. 9 Executive Power pp. 32-38
Congressional Power over Foreign Relations – Authorizing the Use of Military Force    Jamar ch. 9 Executive Power pp. 32-33
War Powers Resolution of 1973    Jamar ch. 9 Executive Power pp. 33-35
President Nixon’s Veto of the War Powers Resolution of 1973    Jamar ch. 9 Executive Power pp. 35-38
Executive Power over International Relations    Jamar ch. 9 Executive Power pp. 39-44
            United States v. Curtiss-Wright Export Corp. (1936)   Jamar ch. 9 Executive Power pp. 39-44
Executive Power to Recognize Foreign States   Jamar ch. 9 Executive Power p. 44-58

Treaty Power    Jamar ch. 9 Executive Power p. 45-58
Settling International Disputes    Jamar ch. 9 Executive Power pp. 46-52
            Dames & Moore v. Regan (1981)  Jamar ch. 9 Executive Power pp. 46-52
Domestic Application of Treaties Jamar ch. 9 Executive Power pp.  53-58
            Medellin v. Texas (2008)  Jamar ch. 9 Executive Power pp. 54-58
Legislative Power of the Executive Branch  Jamar ch. 9 Executive Power pp. 59-63
            Executive Orders   Jamar ch. 9 Executive Power p. 60
            Signing Statements   Jamar ch. 9 Executive Power p. 61
The Executive Power to Execute the Laws   Jamar ch. 9 Executive Power pp. 62-82
The Theory of the Unitary Executive   Jamar ch. 9 Executive Power pp. 63-64
Administrative Agencies   Jamar ch. 9 Executive Power pp.  64-72
Whitman v. American Trucking Associations, Inc. (2001)  Jamar ch. 9 Executive Power pp. 66-70
Administrative Agencies and the Executive Power  Jamar ch. 9 Executive Power pp. 71
The Executive Power of Appointment and Removal  Jamar ch. 9 Executive Power pp.  72-82
Morrison v. Olson (1988)  Jamar ch. 9 Executive Power pp. 73-81
Limits on Congressional Power over the President’s Power of Appointment and Removal    Jamar ch. 9 Executive Power pp. 81-82
Executive and Presidential Privilege and Immunity Jamar ch. 9 Executive Power pp. 83-106
Executive Privilege Against Disclosure of Information    Jamar ch. 9 Executive Power pp. 83-96
            United States v. Nixon (1974) Jamar ch. 9 Executive Power pp. 84-90
Presidential Immunity Jamar  ch. 9 Executive Power pp. 91-96
                Nixon v. Fitzgerald (1982) Jamar ch. 8 Executive Power pp. 91-96
Introduction to Clinton v. Jones (1997) Jamar ch. 9 Executive Power p. 97
                Clinton v. Jones, 520 U.S. 681 (1997) Jamar ch. 9 Executive Power pp. 97-104
The Impeachment of President William J. Clinton (1993-2001) Jamar ch. 9 Executive Power pp. 104-106
Non-presidential Executive Privilege and Immunities  Jamar ch. 9 Executive Power pp. 106

Separation of Powers Jamar ch. 10 Separation of Powers pp.1-49

Introductory Note Jamar ch. 10 Separation of Powers pp. 1-2

Bicameralism and Presentment– the "Legislative Veto"  Jamar ch. 10 Separation of Powers pp. 2-14

INS v. Chadha (1983) Jamar ch. 10 Separation of Powers pp. 3-13

Line Item Veto Jamar ch. 10 Separation of Powers pp. 14-21

Clinton v. City of NY (1998) Jamar ch. 10 Separation of Powers pp. 15-21

Rule-making in the Judicial Branch Jamar ch. 10 Separation of Powers pp. 21-25

Mistretta v. US (1989) Jamar ch. 10 Separation of Powers pp. 22-25

Habeas Corpus -- Congressional and Executive Interference with the Judiciary Jamar ch. 10 Separation of Powers pp. 25-42

Boumediene v. Bush (2008) Jamar ch. 10 Separation of Powers pp. 26-39

Constitutional Limitations on State Power Jamar Ch. 11 State Power and Federal Constitutional Limits on It  pp. 1-93

Preemption Jamar Ch. 11  pp. 1-27

Introduction to Preemption pp. 1-3

Field Preemption Jamar Ch. 11  pp. 3-10

Pacific Gas v. State Energy Resources Commission (1983), Jamar Ch. 11  pp. 3-10

Conflict Preemption Based on Frustrating the Purpose of the Federal Law  Jamar Ch. 11  pp. 11-21

Implied Preemption and Immigration Jamar Ch. 11  pp. 11-21

Arizona v. United States (2012) Jamar Ch. 11  pp. 12-21

Dormant Commerce Clause, Jamar Ch. 11 State Power and Federal Constitutional Limits on It  pp. 24-79

Introduction to the Dormant Commerce Clause,  Jamar Ch. 11 pp. 24-25

Defining Mid-20th Century Cases, Jamar Ch. 11  pp. 25-29

South Carolina State Highway Dept. v. Barnwell Bros., Inc. (1938)    p. 26

Southern Pacific Co. v. Arizona (1945)    p. 27

 Dormant Commerce Clause–Discrimination, Jamar Ch. 11  pp. 28-48

Dean Milk Co. v. Madison (1951)    pp. 30-33

Discrimination–More Milk  Jamar Ch. 11    p. 33

Discriminatory Effect of a Facially Neutral Regulation Jamar Ch. 11    pp. 34-

Hunt v. Washington State Apple Advertising Comm'n (1977) pp. 34-39

Discrimination Regarding Trash Disposal  Jamar Ch. 11  pp. 39-42

City of Philadelphia v. New Jersey (1978) pp. 39-42

Discrimination – The Public Necessity Exception  Jamar Ch. 11  pp. 43-48

Maine v. Taylor (1986) pp. 43-48

Dormant Commerce Clause–Excessive Burden  Jamar Ch. 11  pp. 48-54

Pike v. Bruce Church, Inc. (1970)  pp. 48-51

Minnesota v. Clover Leaf Creamery Co., 449 U.S. 456 (1981)   p. 51-54

Government Performing Governmental Functions That Affect Interstate Commerce  Jamar Ch. 11 pp. 54-

United Haulers Association, Inc.,  v. Oneida-Herkimer Solid Waste Management Authority (2007)  pp. 54-62

Dormant Commerce Clause Limitations and Exceptions  Jamar Ch. 11  pp. 62-

State as a Market Participant    pp. 62-68

Reeves, Inc. v. Stake (1980) pp. 63-68

Limitations on the State as Market Participant Exception  pp. 77-79

South-Central Timber Development v. Wunnicke (1984) pp. 69-70

The Federal Approval Exception   pp. 70-74

Western & Southern Life Insurance Co. v. State Board of Equalization of California (1981)   pp. 70-74

Dormant Commerce Clause–Special Cases  Jamar Ch. 11 pp. 75-78

State Support of In-state Commerce  p. 75

State Taxation  p. 76

Licenses p. 77

Privileges and Immunities     Jamar Ch. 11  pp. 80-91

Baldwin v. Fish and Game Commission of Montana (1978) pp. 84-89

The Privileges and Immunities Clause and Fundamental Rights   pp. 89-91

Full Faith and Credit   Jamar Ch. 11  pp. 92-93

Note on the Incorporation Doctrine and Rights as Limits on States   Jamar Ch. 11 State Power and Federal Constitutional Limits on It  p. 93

Federalism and State Sovereignty Jamar Ch. 12 Federalism & Sovereignty pp. 1-95

Introduction to Sovereignty and Federalism Jamar Ch. 12 Federalism & State Sovereignty pp. 1-5

The Anti-Commandeering Limit on Federal Power to Regulate States Jamar Ch. 12 pp. 5-53

Garcia v. San Antonio Metropolitan Transit Authority (1985)  pp. 8-19
After Garcia (1985)   pp. 19-20
The Anti-Commandeering Doctrine: State Legislation and Regulation Jamar Ch. 12 pp. 20
New York v. United States (1992) pp. 21-34
The Anti-Commandeering Doctrine: State Enforcement of Federal Law Jamar Ch. 12  pp. 34-41
Printz v. United States (1997) pp. 34-41
Contextual Note after Printz (1997) pp. 41-42
Anti-Commandeering Doctrine Limited: Direct Regulation of Commercial Activity of States Jamar Ch. 12 pp. 42-
Reno v. Condon (2000) pp. 43-46
Federalism in the Context of Anti-Commandeering Versus Direct Regulation of Commercial Actions by a State Jamar Ch. 12   pp. 46-47

Introduction to the 11th Amendment and State Sovereign Immunity  Jamar Ch. 12 Federalism & State Sovereignty pp. 49-86
State Sovereign Immunity and Federal Regulation Jamar Ch. 12  pp. 50-
State Sovereign Immunity Reborn  p. 51
Seminole Tribe of Florida v. Florida (1996) pp. 52-65
Developments After Seminole Tribe (1995) Jamar Ch. 12 pp. 66-70
Alden v. Maine (1999) (note) p. 67
Florida Prepaid Postsecondary Education Expense Board v. College Savings Bank (1999) (note) p. 67
Central Virginia Community College v. Katz (2006) (note) p. 67
Board of Trustees of the University of Alabama v. Garrett (2001) (note) p. 68
Tennessee v. Lane (2004) (note) p. 69
Nevada Dept. of Human Resources v. Hibbs (2003) (note) p. 70
Introduction to the Ex Parte Young (1908) Doctrine Jamar Ch. 12 pp. 70-71

Excerpt from Lewis Carroll’s Through the Looking Glass (1872) Jamar Ch. 12 pp. 71-72
The Ex parte Young (1908) Doctrine Jamar Ch. 12 12 pp. 72-86
Pennhurst State School & Hospital v. Halderman (1984) pp. 73-84
Pennhurst (1984) in Context Jamar Ch. 12 pp. 85-86
A Proposed Amendment on State Sovereign Immunity Jamar Ch. 12 pp. 88-89

May 9, 2017 -- Final Exam